If you don’t feel in miracles, skip this page. If you really don’t think The us is an excellent country, read no even more. The story of the Struggle of New Orleans, the Bicentennial of which we notice right now, is a tale of an almost unbelievably 1-sided victory.
At this stage two hundred years in the past in the War of 1812, the two Britain and the U.S. experienced unsuccessful frequently in attempts to strike a knockout blow. The Americans failed spectacularly in attempts to invade and occupy British Canada. We had been pushed out of Canada after humiliating defeats at Lundy’s Lane and somewhere else. At the graduation of the war, retired President Thomas Jefferson experienced said the conquest of Canada would be “a mere matter of marching.” It was not a single of the Sage of Monticello’s much better predictions.
Jefferson’s loyal lieutenant and successor as president, James Madison, had experienced to hightail it out of the White Residence in August, 1814, to keep away from seize. Then, a strong British amphibious pressure sailed up the Chesapeake practically unopposed and landed disciplined troops in Maryland. They marched overland and summarily defeated panicked neighborhood militia at Higher Marlboro, Bladensburg, and ultimately even Washington, D.C.
Even though President Madison courageously rode into motion in opposition to the invader (the only president at any time to take up arms towards a overseas foe), his similarly brave wife, Dolley Madison, saved the renowned Gilbert Stuart “Lansdowne”portrait of George Washington. As Dolley was evacuating the White Property, Sec. of State James Monroe ordered clerk Stephen Pleasanton to throw some outdated government paperwork in a burlap sack and hurry them out of the embattled funds. Pleasanton did his duty. He took that sack in a wagon to Great Falls, Virginia, and therefore we nonetheless have the original Declaration of Independence and the Structure.
The British burned the White Property, the Capitol, and the Library of Congress. The entire funds city might have gone up in flames but for a sudden hurricane that extinguished the flames. With the funds nonetheless smoldering, even so, the mayors of Georgetown and Alexandria ultimately obtained an audience with the invading British Admiral, George Cochrane. “We’ve arrive to surrender our cities to you, Sir,” they bleated. “I’m not even likely there,” harrumphed the haughty conqueror. (Liberal Georgetown and Alexandria have a long custom of pre-emptive surrender!)
Adm. Cochrane rather went to Baltimore, exactly where his assault unsuccessful. And the Star-Spangled Banner even now waved earlier mentioned Fort McHenry. None of this would have helped, nevertheless, if the British experienced made excellent their invasion of Louisiana.
This was maybe the gravest risk of the whole war. In Europe, Napoleon experienced at very last been defeated and exiled. Now, Britain could turn her undivided attention to crushing the upstart Individuals. To demonstrate their seriousness of function, they dispatched Gen. Sir Edward Michael Pakenham to be a part of Adm. Cochrane and a large pressure of 14,000 fight-hardened troops to wrest the complete Mississippi Valley from the United States. Pakenham was a seasoned soldier and the brother-in-legislation of Napoleon’s nemesis, the wonderful Duke of Wellington. Amongst Sir Edward’s papers was a Royal Commission naming him as Governor of the Province of Louisiana. When, as envisioned, he confused the American rabble at New Orleans, Britain would hem in The united states on the North, the South, and the West.
All of this may have occurred but for the flinty braveness and iron will of Gen. Andrew Jackson. Identified as “Old Hickory” to his troops (and not constantly fondly), Jackson was already a veteran of Indian wars and border conflicts with the Spanish. He bore a scar on his temple from a sword cut created by a surly British officer when he had been just a lad in South Carolina, throughout the Revolution. Jackson hated the British with a Scots-Irish fervor.
Gen. Jackson had been alerted to the British invasion by a nearby militia officer, Significant Gabriel Villaré, one of the French Creole planters of Louisiana. Villaré experienced evaded British seize by diving via a window at his estate when the British barged in. Maj. Villaré then ran through the swamps to sound the warning.
Commanding Gen. Jackson quickly place the Crescent Town below martial regulation, jailed a federal judge who defied his orders, and geared up to hold New Orleans from the predicted assault. Jackson commanded a motley force of American typical army, 50 %-wild Tennessee and Kentucky militia, and the Baratarian Pirates. These had been French-speakers whom Jackson himself called “hellish banditti” The pirates had been led by Jean Lafitte, who was fluent in French, Spanish, Italian, and English and who had offered his services—for a price tag, of course—to the redcoat invaders. The shrewd Jackson rapidly approved Lafitte’s offer you of alliance. Insert to this mix, the nearby “Gens du Couleur.” These were free black citizens of New Orleans. Their aid would demonstrate indispensable and their example would aid to tamp down any notion of slave rebellion in the condition.
The British had envisioned the Us citizens to worry at the sight of their latest weapon, the Congreve rockets. These magnificent new sights on the battlefield had led Americans to toss down their weapons exterior Washington as gentlemen and horses fled in terror. They reckoned without Outdated Hickory, who rode back again and forth along his traces, exposing himself to enemy sharpshooters although calling out “these are terrors for children, gentlemen. Hold your floor!”
Keep it they did. And when the redcoats innovative toward the American breastworks, these “wild” frontiersmen allow unfastened with devastating volleys. They had been trained to shoot, drop back, re-load, and shoot again with deadly accuracy. Gen. Pakenham and other best British attackers had been killed in the onslaught. As relevant by famed historian, Robert Remini in his acclaimed biography of Jackson, “the destruction of the high command in a single blow ‘caused a wavering in the column which in this sort of a circumstance grew to become irreparable.” The British suffered 2,037 casualties to the Americans’ 13 lifeless, 39 wounded, and 19 lacking. British survivors would inform their American captors they experienced in no way confronted an enemy who did not operate absent when hit by the new Congreve rockets.
In mere minutes, Britain’s hope of re-developing its North American dominance faded. Jackson’s victory was celebrated in a Te Deum Mass in the Cathedral of St. Louis in New Orleans. Jackson, the staunch Presbyterian, obligingly attended that function and many culture balls in his honor.
In Washington, D.C., late word arrived of the Treaty of Ghent. That document formally ended the War of 1812. It experienced been signed on December 24, 1814, in that Belgian city—three months just before the Struggle of New Orleans. That treaty primarily restored the Position Quo Ante—that is, neither aspect could declare a victory in the war.
Nevertheless, news of the “Incredible Victory” at New Orleans adopted on the heels of the peace announcement. Not remarkably, Americans tended to look at the functions as one and at any time after claimed “bragging rights.” President Madison basked in new general public esteem. As for Gen. Andrew Jackson, from January eight, 1815, till his death in 1845, Individuals all understood who “The Hero” was.